Estimated Global Methane Emissions 2020

Why Are Landfills Significant Sources of Global Methane Emissions?

Landfills around the world contribute to an estimated eleven percent (11%) of all global methane emissions, with methane being a climate amplifier and up to 25 times stronger than CO2 (carbon dioxide) as a greenhouse gas on a longer term. In the first decades of being emitted into Earth’s atmosphere, methane is more than 80 times more powerful than carbon dioxide, causing it to actually warm Earth’s climate more than carbon dioxide. 

The fact that landfills are such a large source of anthropogenic methane emissions on a global scale suggests that there is a need and potential to a) reduce the amount of overall waste b) improved waste management practices, including recycling and transforming waste into energy. Recycling and energy production from waste of course have to be in line with national policies, whereby communities and governments are responsible for creating and maintaining sustainable waste management policies and procedures, allowing for completely new kinds of businesses to emerge and to thrive in a world where waste can today be regarded as a currency.

While some countries have decided to completely ban plastic bags in order to reduce plastic waste and it ending up especially in our oceans, for instance in Finland plastic recycling was not set up until 2016. Today, around one fifth (20%) of all plastic waste in Finland is being recycled, with a target of increasing the amount of recycled plastic within the upcoming few years. 

I first ran into Plastic Bank on Twitter a few years ago. Plastic Bank is an organization dedicated to stopping ocean plastic ending up in our oceans by turning waste into currency, killing two birds with one stone by contributing both to ending poverty and preventing harmful plastic waste ending up in our oceans. 

Of course, plastic is not the only kind of waste on our planet, but it is one of the worst: it can take up to one thousand (1.000) years for plastic bottles to biodegrade, with the average time being 450 years. Think about that before throwing plastic garbage (or, any garbage at all) into the nature!

The average decomposition rates of debris/garbage varies largely: glass bottles thrown into water sources or nature in general is undefined, or can take up to one million (1.000.000) years to decompose, followed by fishing lines (600 years), plastic beverage bottles (450 years), disposable diapers (450 years), aluminium cans (up to 200 years), foamed plastic buoys (80 years), foamed plastic cups (50 years), rubber-boot soles (up to 80 years), tin cans (50 years), leather (50 years), nylon fabric (up to 40 years), plastic bags (up to 20 years), cigarette butts (up to five years), wool socks (up to five years), and plywood (up to three years). (NOAA Marine Debris Program 2019; U.S. National Park Service 2019). It is estimated that more than eight million tons of plastic end up in our oceans alone each year, and cleaning all the waste from our oceans is not as simple as from elsewhere in our environment. 

Nevertheless, The Ocean CleanUp is an ambitious project determined to clean up our world’s oceans from all the waste through advanced technologies. It will definitely be exciting to see how this demanding project turns out.

The World Bank estimates that urban solid waste will increase by 70% by 2025, from some 1.3 billion tonnes currently to 2.2 billion tonnes by 2025, increasing the global costs of waste (management) significantly. This huge increase in overall waste worldwide does include a number of risks, both for health and the environment, but it also gives us the opportunity to create and develop improved waste management practices, recycling, and an effort to create better solutions for instance in terms of packaging materials and overall design.

The complete report published by The World Bank in March 2012, “What a Waste – A Global Review of Solid Waste Management” can be downloaded here. In brief, the report highlights key issues such as municipal solid waste management being the most important service any city provides, with poorly managed waste having immense impacts on health, the environment overall, and the economy. It identifies non-sustainable development including water and wastewater (treatment), greenhouse gas emissions, poverty and slums, social unrest, air pollution, and solid waste. Landfilling in low-income countries/low-technology sites, according to the report, is usually open dumping of wastes, leading to high pollution in nearby aquifers and water bodies, waste regularly being burned, with significant health consequences for local residents and staff. 

High-income OECD countries alone account for almost half (44-46%) of total worldwide waste generation, with high-income OECD countries also having the highest waste collection rates. What ends up in landfills worldwide has large impacts on our environment, as a result of which advanced recycling and waste management are significant factors for minimizing both environmental and health concerns.

Learn more by watching “Landfill Methane Emissions and Oxidation”, published by Illinois Sustainable Technology Center:

What conclusions can we draw from this? 

  • Your consumption habits matter and have an impact! Demand better products, and reduce your amount of waste. 
  • Packaging materials make a significant difference. Businesses/producers/retailers and consumers can influence what kinds of packaging materials are being used. 
  • With a constantly growing world population, it is essential to start limiting the amount of waste produced per capita in different countries. Otherwise, one option would be to charge for any additional waste through either waste collection costs per household/business or higher taxation on non-environmentally friendly packaging materials/products.
  • Improved recycling and overall waste management practices around the world. 

What else can you think of? Please share your ideas and thoughts by commenting on this article! You may also want to read my previous article “How Environmentally Friendly Is Biomass Production?” to find out more about how waste is being managed in for instance a country like Sweden. Today, we do have similar waste management practices in Finland as well. 

Connect with me on Twitter @annemariayritys. For climate/environment-related posts only @GCCThinkActTank. Subscribe to Leading With Passion to receive my latest posts.






GCC Think Act Tank cover 2019

Why Do We Urgently Need Sustainable Agriculture and Food Production?

According to both the FAO and the IPCC, global food production alone is responsible for a major proportion of greenhouse gas emissions. Not only are millions of hectares of forests being cut down annually in order to create space for more land to be cultivated, much of which is being wasted in many ways: crops are being grown to produce biofuels, or to feed cattle and other domesticated animals which ultimately end up on the human plate when those animals are being slaughtered.


Sustainable agriculture signifies that with a rapidly growing world population, we can no longer afford to waste essential natural resources. Moreover, poorly managed soils can take up to a century to recover and impoverished soils lead to impoverished nutritional values in any crop, or any food grown and produced.


What alternatives do we have?


  1. Using AI (Artificial Intelligence) to improve production methods in agriculture and farming.
  2. Radically reduce food waste, everywhere on this planet. Currently, much of crop/food is being thrown away.
  3. End (or at least reduce) animal farming drastically.
  4. Stop growing crops for the sake of, and stop wasting land, to produce biofuels.
  5. Transform the global agriculture and food sectors into increasingly much plant-based diets for human beings.
  6. Start valuing forests and trees as an essential source of food and nutrition not only for human beings, but also for animals.
  7. Innovate completely new food products, including food grown in laboratories ethically.

A-M. Yritys August 9, 2019



Environmentally Friendly Chanterelle Pie

Environmentally Friendly Chanterelle Pie

Food consumption locally/worldwide has one of the single largest impacts on our environment. Not only do we throw away and waste a large proportion of all produced food. In Finland alone, food waste is a huge problem since at least 23 kg of food products are being thrown away per person each year. While in parts of the world population is still suffering from malnutrition and lack of food, more and more people suffer from overweight or are even obese.
There is no lack of food in our world, since today food is produced for at least 10 billion people worldwide, much of which is being thrown away and wasted. The largest problem is how our food is being produced and transported + the harsh reality of an immense amount of food waste.
An environmentally healthy diet is also good for your personal health. Learn more about environmentally healthy eating habits, and local food production/consumption.
Eatable mushrooms, including chanterelles, are a healthy option in many ways. Chanterelles, for instance, contain many healthy nutrients including vitamin D, iron, and non-animal proteins.
Here is a recipe I personally use to bake a chanterelle pie (I hunt my chanterelles personally from local forests where I live!).
Chanterelle pie (8 portions)
125 g quark
125 g butter/margarine
3 1/2 dl flour
1/4 teaspoons of salt
1 teaspoon sodium bicarbonate (baking powder)
1 litre of chanterelles
1 large onion (or, leek/spring onion)
1 tomato
1 fresh chili
One small package of cream cheese (not necessary, if you want less calories)
a pinch of salt
a pinch of black pepper
2 dl cream
1 egg
grated cheese
1. Mix the crust ingredients to an even dough. Then roll the crust onto a pie tin (a diameter of 26 cm is optimal for this crust size)
2. Fry the chanterelles on a medium temperature until most of the moisture evaporates. Add the onion, tomato, chili and continue frying until these take on a bit of color. Add (voluntarily) the cream cheese and fry until the cream cheese has melted. Remember to stir in-between.
3. Mix the egg and some grated cheese in a separate bowl. Add some black pepper. Stir.
4. Pour the pan ingredients (chanterelles, tomato, chili, onion, cream cheese) on top of the crust.
5. Pour the egg/grated cheese mix on top of the pie. Add some extra grated cheese if you want to.
6. Bake in 220 degrees Celsius in the oven for about 30 minutes.
7. Take the pie from the oven and serve.
Ps. For vegans/gluten intolerants; please adjust according to your special needs. Also adjust to your special needs if you are allergic to some ingredient.
Bon appetit!

Every Sinner has a Future…

Although I live in a country (Finland) where WWF’s Earth Hour every year falls onto a date when it is already so light outdoors that you do not need any artificial lights, I have in my heart and in my mind celebrated Earth Hour for as long as I can recall WWF having started its campaign for spreading awareness about important topics including environmental wellbeing and the protection of animal species, which all are under some kind of threat due to human activities on this common planet that we share.


Each year, Earth Hour has been more of an ideology to me:


I do not need a separate Earth Hour, because since many years I aim to live in a way that harms the planet as little as possible.


That includes cutting down on “luxury” basically to a minimum level.


I sold my first (and probably last) car 12 years ago.


I have not used an airplane for more than four years. Not for business, nor privately.


I have made it my priority to consume more wisely, including my eating habits and the clothes I wear.


I only buy what I need.


I use as little electricity as possible.


I walk or bike most of the time.


I clean up the nature around me every day, 365 days a year.


To me, real luxury in life is to have awareness, and be conscious of what is taking place around me.


I am not saying that I will never again drive a car or fly around the world. That is something I have done already, in my past.


There is a saying: “Every sinner has a future, and every saint has a past”.


None of us is perfect. We all have our flaws and weaknesses.


As human beings, we all destroy the environment. We all consume too much.


But what makes a difference are those small everyday choices.


Make smarter choices.


You don’t have to give up on all “luxuries” in your life, but you can try to make small efforts to improve your way of living and your impact on this planet that we share together, with now around 7.5 billion other human beings, and millions of animal species that suffer from the consequences of human greed.


WWF’s Earth Hour is really not about turning off the lights for one hour per year.


It is about turning on your inner light for 8750 hours per year, and for becoming increasingly conscious of what needs to be done for the well-being of our environment.


Anne-Maria Yritys 29.3.2019


GCC Think Act Tank cover 2019

Sustainability is a Matter of Wise(r) Choices

During this era of climate change awakening and a realization of what is going on in terms of climate change and environmental destruction around the world, it would be very non-kaizen not to individually contribute to increasingly much sustainable economic development. Kaizen is Japanese, and can be recognized as one of the basic ingredients for the success of Japanese products on the world market. Not only the term, kaizen is actually a life and business philosophy of continued improvement, personal development, and efficiency.


Implementing kaizen into one’s personal life, and business, is simple. Since radical change is often challenging for anyone, methodologies such as kaizen can be implemented as a part of both personal life values and core business values. Leading an increasingly much sustainable life both in business and privately does not mean that we have to give up on everything or drastically change our consumption habits. We can, however, contribute by reconsidering our consumption and through changing some habits. For many businesses worldwide, sustainability already is a competitive advantage and at the very core of the brand. 


Environmentally healthy choices are in fact often better for our health too, such as biking (exercising) more, using public transportation instead of sitting for hours in traffic jams (which is very stressful), eating less red meat, eating less cheese and so on. Many people today go vegan and protest all animal farming. It is up to each one of us to decide how far we are willing to go. Even small changes matter. Instead of eating beef every day, why not just once or twice per week and consider some other options, such as having one vegetarian day per week, or replacing beef with chicken or fish. Letting go of old habits can be extremely difficult, especially if the change is forced upon us or if we are unwilling to change.


The bigger the change, the more important it is to take baby steps and not to force yourself or other people to change. Guilt-tripping only makes things worse.

Nevertheless, considering the fact that the vast majority of world population cannot even afford buying meat, it may be helpful in understanding that to many people, meat is in general a luxury product that they cannot afford. And while overweight has become a larger problem worldwide than hunger and malnutrition, millions of people in this world actually go hungry every day and do not get all the essential nutrients such as proteins and different vitamins.


Except for Europe and North America, the whole world has been eating insects as a part of culture. Not until recent years have insects made their way to European tables, supermarkets, and restaurants too. Food is one of the biggest single anthropogenic factors worldwide contributing to an increase in CO2 and methane levels. 


Some people and sources claim that it is too late to plant trees and vegetation to stop human-caused climate change and to prevent CO2 levels in the atmosphere from increasing. 


I disagree.


Now, more than ever, do we need to plant more gardens, more trees and more vegetation to save this planet from toxicity. Trees and plants play a significant role in the environment, absorbing large amounts of CO2, helping the environment to stay cooler than it would without any greenery or trees, and helping the environment to prevent for instance erosion. 


In his book “*Puukirja: puut osaratkaisuna maailman nälän ja ilmastonmuutoksen ongelmiin” (1997, Ympäristö ja kehitys), Finnish author Risto Isomäki writes about the importance of various trees not only as a source of protection for our Earth, but also as a source of food and nutrition to population all over the world. [Note:*”The Book of Trees: trees as a part of the solution to world hunger and the problems caused by climate change” (1997, Coalition for Environment & Development). The original text is in Finnish, and I have not found an English translation of this book].  


In terms of climate change and sea levels rising, the numbers for sea levels rising are announced very moderately and optimistically by mainstream media, meteorological institutions and research institutions perhaps since it is a) unsure how much sea levels will actually rise, if global average temperatures rise by more than an optimistically calculated three degrees Celsius (six degrees Celsius in certain regions on this planet can be more realistic unless global warming is stopped); b) the media or any scientific institutions do not want to cause panic which is understandable although the purpose and goal of quality journalism is to produce reliable information and stick to realism rather than to paint overly optimistic pictures to an audience wearing rose-colored glasses.


Rising sea levels are a threat to hundreds of millions, or even billions of people worldwide. A vast majority of the human population live in densely inhabited coastal areas, and coastal cities around the world are already preparing for rising sea levels. One of the main problems is that no one knows for sure how much sea levels will rise, and how fast it will take place. Due to a number of scientific factors, sea levels may rise in different proportions in various locations around the world.


The consequences of human-caused climate change are real and felt all around the world, in all industries and by every human being and animal.  


For instance in Finland much of specific crop was lost due to excess rainfall in 2017. A year later, in 2018, up to 40% of all crops was lost due to drought. Similar problems are being reported from many geographical regions worldwide. I saw with my own eyes how the environment suffered from drought just within a few weeks of time. Dead plants, trees and vegetation in forests and everywhere in nature. This is something you cannot see if you never or rarely spend time in nature, but the difference was huge e.g. in comparison between 2017 and 2018. To understand the effects of human-caused climate change and destruction does not require much more than common sense, but it is of course helpful to be interested in what is happening to our environment. 


If climate change is already endangering food security and food availability, imagine what will await us within a few years from now, if this development continues. The FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) emphasizes in its updated strategy from 2017: We have a window of opportunity to act in terms of food security, but we must take action now.


Sustainable economic development is in fact no longer simply a choice, but a necessity, around the world. The sooner this is realized and concrete actions are being taken by ALL citizens, all governments, and all businesses worldwide, the better will we be able to cope with what this world will turn into in the upcoming decades. Although some people think it is too late to do anything, there is always hope and we can always do our best in terms of contributing to sustainable economic development on this only home planet that we have.


Anne-Maria Yritys 11.2.2019


All rights reserved.


Do You Need a Climate and Environmental Diet?

You can find plenty of information on the Internet about how to reduce your personal climate and environmental impact.
No one is perfect, but if each and one of us takes responsibility and considers how s/he can make better choices both economically and ecologically we can all influence things on a broad scale. Many environmentally and climate-change friendly choices can also have a beneficial impact on your personal health. is one alternative to calculate your personal carbon footprint, and learn more about environmental consciousness:
Oletko sinä ilmastodieetin tarpeessa?
Netistä löytyy rutkasti tietoa siihen liittyen, kuinka voit pienentää omaa ilmasto- ja ympäristökuormitustasi.
Kukaan meistä ei ole täydellinen, mutta jokaisen kantaessa kortensa kekoon ja pohtien omalla kohdallaan kuinka voisi tehdä järkevämpiä päätöksiä niin taloudellisesti kuin ekologisesti voimme vaikuttaa asioihin suurestikin. Monilla ympäristön ja ilmaston kannalta tärkeistä valinnoista voi myös olla suotuisia vaikutuksia omaan terveyteesi.
Ympäristö.fi-sivu on yksi vaihtoehto oman hiilijalanjälkensä laskemiseen:

How To Guarantee Arctic Environmental Well-Being?

Arctic (20)

With so much dangerous toxins, greenhouse gases, and pollution from e.g. industrial waste and the inefficient burning of black coal in Earth´s atmosphere, how can we ensure that these toxins and pollutants do not end up anywhere in our environment, especially in the Arctic region which warms at least twice as fast as the rest of our planet?

There is no other way of preventing harmful pollutants of destroying our environment, including ourselves, than removing them completely from our way of living. Yet, with the technologies and methods of production we use today, this prevention seems impossible. How long will it take until we destroy ourselves and our home planet? According to the most optimistic prognoses, we have this century left. Others say, only a few decades. Others say, only a few years or at the maximum, a decade. Are we headed towards a climate catastrophe? Let us hope that we do not, and that we still have time to take action.

This is one of the main messages of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG´s) that are a continuum to the Millennium Development Goals – UN SDG Goal Number 13: Take URGENT action to combat climate change and its impacts.

This is no joke, really. These goals were all set for an extremely important reason. In fact, all of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals are in one way or the other interlinked to climate action and climate change. Learn more about UN´s Sustainable Development Goals here.

We have NO time to wast. We must all take action now, both on individual, business, organizational, and governmental levels. Especially much responsibility must be taken by the largest emitters on this planet: China, The U.S.A. and the European Union. Those who destroy and pollute the most must act NOW and transform their economies into increasingly much sustainable places of living. This is not something concerning only the Arctic region, although this is where the warming of the planet is faster than elsewhere. Right now, in the COP23 Climate Summit in Bonn, hosted by Fiji, sea level rise and its threat to millions and millions of people worldwide is being discussed very seriously. If we cannot prevent sea levels from rising, swallowing up whole islands and coastal cities around the world, what will the future look like for these people? Where will they live? What will they eat? How will they produce food in environments and climates that change so rapidly that our current ways of producing food are unsustainable? If you have answers, please let me know, or at least take action upon them. For example in Finland completely new ways of food production are already being implemented by experimental and progressive businesses that have foreseen what we have ahead of us.

Learn more about the melting Arctic by watching European Environment Agency´s video “Melting Arctic: Environmental Atlas of Europe – Greenland”:


Connect with me on Twitter @annemariayritys. For climate/environment-related posts only @GCCThinkActTank. Subscribe to Leading With Passion to receive my latest posts.

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Why is The Arctic Experiencing Social & Environmental Changes?

Do you know what and where the Arctic is situated on our planet? Have you ever visited any of the Arctic regions? If not, you may be surprised at the beauty of the different Arctic regions, its beauty and multitude of flora, fauna and landscapes. The Arctic is the northernmost part of planet Earth, also called the polar north. The Arctic is also the 2nd largest desert in the world, expanding over an area of almost 14 million (14.000.000) square kilometers (km2). As a geographical region, the Arctic includes the Arctic Ocean, adjoining seas, parts of Alaska, Northern Canada, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Russia and Sweden. Geographically the Arctic lies between 66.5°N and the North Pole.

As a comparison, Tampere, where I currently live, is situated at 61.5°N. Each degree of latitude is approximately 111 km apart, so I live 5 x 111 km = 555 km south from the Arctic. In fact, the arctic/polar circle in Finland is in Rovaniemi, which lies approximately 600 km north from Tampere by flight. An hours domestic flight from Tampere to Rovaniemi. If not otherwise familiar to you, Rovaniemi is where Santa Claus lives with his reindeers and helpers. It is also where Mika and Marketa Häkkinen (née Ramesova) were wedded just before Christmas 2016.

Alternatively, several hours by bus or train, or by car it takes almost half a day since we have only little highways in Finland, and during winter months speed limits are lower due to weather conditions, something that is of course also better for the environment. If you travel across Finland by car you will notice how little traffic there is e.g. in comparison with Central Europe, e.g Germany and Italy. Of course, since we are a sparsely populated country. The further north you travel in Finland, the less people will you meet: most of population lives in southern Finland.

But how and why does the Arctic experience social and environmental changes? What I know about these changes is mainly through what I read, and hear from relatives living in Finnish Lapland. My father comes from Kittilä, a small municipality situated not far from several tourist resorts, such as Levi/Sirkka and Ylläs. Having spent many holidays in Lapland from childhood on, the region is of course near my heart. Despite of population declining in many sparsely populated areas in Finland, Lapland is perhaps our number one tourist destination, both for domestic and international visitors. Tourism is continuously expanding and growing in Lapland, and Levi/Sirkka has changed/expanded tremendously in the past couple of decades.

A growing tourism is of course beneficial for a region in many ways, especially in terms of economic value. A growing tourism may also have its setbacks, e.g. in terms of maintaining sustainability, taking care of the environment and ecological well-being.

In general, what comes to social and environmental changes and impacts in the whole Arctic region includes:

  • The Arctic is home to indigenous people, who have long traditions of living in accordance with nature without as little as possible destruction, if any at all. These indigenous Saami people now report how the climate is changing in the Arctic, e.g. in terms of warming, and weather patterns becoming less predictable.
  • Snowfall and snow quality is becoming different, with more icy snow. Sea ice is declining, and water levels in many lakes are dropping.

Learn more about the reported/studied climatic changes in the Arctic by reading e.g. following articles:

GreenFacts (Facts on Health and the Environment)

The Arctic as it is known today is almost certainly gone (The Economist April 29, 2017).

Also watch this short video by NASA – The Arctic and the Antarctic Respond in Opposite Ways:


Connect with me on Twitter @annemariayritys. For climate/environment-related posts only @GCCThinkActTank. Subscribe to Leading With Passion to receive my latest posts.

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If We Don´t Take Care of Nature, Nature Will Take Care of Us

Dead trees in a forest in Tampere, Finland. Photo: Anne-Maria Yritys 2017. All rights reserved.


According to The Finnish Forest Association  , the state of Finland owns around 26% of all the forests in Finland while private persons own the rest. As a forest owner in Finland you basically have the obligation to take care of the forest you own. As an individual, whether living in Finland or visiting the country as a tourist, you have the right to walk around in any forest in Finland which I currently do almost daily. On my walks I see lots of dead forest/trees that seem neglected. 

Someone asked me why something like this happens to trees. To be honest, I do not know the answer. What I know for a fact (and personally see) is that garbage is being dumped in our forests. Every time I walk around/hike, I collect some trash thrown into our nature but I cannot clean up every piece of dirt/trash that is being thrown into nature.


I see all kinds of garbage being dumped into nature, and into our forests, including hazardous waste, such as motor oil. Some of the findings include plastic bottles/other plastic, aluminium cans/other metal objects, glass bottles, old chairs, even mattresses and old tires. It is a horrible sight!
If there is one book I recommend for you to read this year is the non-fiction thriller “Gomorra”, written by Italian journalist Roberto Saviano. It is a true story about how Saviano himself got infiltrated into the Italian mafia in Southern Italy, and his observations over several years. Not only does this non-fiction include quite horrible details about how the mafia operates around the world, but also how they have monopolized the recycling and waste industry in Italy, and how they have dumped poisonous materials/waste into the environment. 
Anne-Maria Yritys 2017. All rights reserved.

Collapsing Ecosystems


A few days ago, I spent two hours talking to a 78-year-old Lady & her husband (80+) at their Summer cottage. Both of them hardly had any wrinkles. She said, they spend all Summer in nature. In Winter, she goes ice swimming regularly and she uses FINNISH HONEY every single day, both applied on her skin & inwards.

We also spoke about CLIMATE CHANGE. She said, recently you can no more find FINNISH HONEY in the stores. There are no bees. Even their cottage neighbor, who keeps bees, has lost them! This is not only a Finnish problem. It is a GLOBAL problem.

Bees, and other insects important to our global environmental ecosystems, are disappearing. If not already, please do hear the alarm bells. If we humans cause extinction of species important to our global ecosystem, we will ultimately destroy ourselves. It has long been urgent to rethink our ways of living and consuming. If not already, do take action in your personal AND professional life.



Missing bees: The Mysterious Case of Colony Collapse Disorder